The heart pumps blood with a rhythm determined by the group of pacemaking cells in the sinoatrial node. These generate the current that causes contraction of the heart, traveling through the atrioventricular node and along with the conduction system of the heart. The heart receives blood low in oxygen from the systemic circulation, enters the right atrium from superior and inferior vena cave and passes to the right ventricle. From here is pumped into the pulmonary circulation, receives oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide.
Oxygenated blood then returns to the left atrium, passes through the left ventricle and pumped out through the aorta to the systemic circulation. Heartbeats at a resting rate are close to 72 beats per minute.
Heart disease was used interchangeably with the term "cardiovascular disease." Cardiovascular disease generally refers to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain or stroke.
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