Echo-cardiogram

ECG was performed by placing electrodes on the skin overlying the heart. As the electrical impulse moves from the atria, which are the top two chambers, to the ventricles down below, the voltage measurement between the Electrocardiograms. Waves represent one heartbeat. Looked at separately, waves tell us what's happening in the heart at a certain time. The first wave is called the P wave.

 Move along the graph of the ECG see a small dip followed by a large spike and another dip.

·         ST-T wave: Ventricular repolarization

·         U wave: origin for this wave is not clear  but probably represents "afterdepolarizations" in the ventricles

·         PR interval: time interval from onset of atrial depolarization to onset of ventricular depolarization

·         QRS duration: duration of ventricular muscle depolarization.

·         QT Interval; duration of the ventricular depolarization and the repolarization.

·         RR Interval: Duration of the ventricular Cardiac Cycle.

·         PP Interval: Duration of atrial Cycle.

·         Bipolar leads

I = Right arm to left arm

II= Right arm to the left leg

III =Left arm to the left leg

·         Augmented bipolar leads

aVR= Right arm to Left arm and left leg

aVL=Left arm to left leg and right arm

aVF=Left leg to left arm and right arm 

By analyzing the pattern and frequency of the ECG recorded, the following information can be extracted

·         Heart rate

·         Heart rhythm

·         Conduction abnormalities

·         Heart orientation in the chest cavity

·         Evidence of increased thickness of heart muscle (hypertrophy)

·         Evidence of damaged heart muscle

·         Acutely impaired blood flow to the heart muscle

·         Warning signs of abnormal cardiac rhythm disturbances 

Based on these observations, ECG will help to screen and diagnose for the following conditions

·         Fast or irregular heart rhythms

·         AbnAbnormally slow heart rhythms

·   normal conduction of cardiac electrical impulses, which are symptoms for cardiac or metabolic disorders

·         Prior heart attacks (myocardial infarction)

·         Reduced blood flow during a heart attack (unstable angina)

·         Damage to the heart from other heart or systemic diseases,

·         Damage to the heart from certain lung conditions, such as emphysema, blood clots to the      lung

·         Enlarged cardiac chambers (cardiac dilatation)

·         Evidence of abnormal blood electrolytes - calcium, magnesium, potassium

·         Inflammation of the heart (myocarditis) or its lining (pericarditis)

·         Cardiomyopathy   range of conditions in which the heart muscle does not function normally, including several congenital forms of cardiomyopathies

Attached timers to ECG recorders in 17 wards and clinics to collect data on the time of actual use. Usage ranged from 31 min/day in the coronary care unit to 0.7 min/day in the postpartum ward and averaged 8.0 +/- 8 min/day for all locations. Seventy-five percent of the recorders were used less than 10 min/day and 25 percent of the recorders were used less than 2 min/day. On a per-bed basis, they were used 0.8 +/- 1.4 min/day. Almost no correlation was found between the number of portable ECG recorders and the number of beds in 20 teachings and 23 nonteaching hospitals. The number of beds ranged from 11 to 70 per ECG recorder in teaching hospitals and from 14 to 122 in nonteaching hospitals. Nonteaching hospitals averaged 59 +/- 26 beds per recorder; teaching hospitals averaged 34 +/- 17 beds per machine.

 

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Abstract Deadline
31/05/2020